Monday, 24 May 2010

General Grammar Exercises/Gerunds and Infinitives 1


Gerunds and infinitives 1









Problem: This is a very complex area, and students are often confused by the number of different sentence patterns to learn. Also the gerund ("-ing" form of the verb) can be confused with continuous tense verb forms and with certain participle links (see exercises elsewhere on these pages) because these also end in "-ing". These are just grammar "names" which are governed by the way they are used: their functions in a sentence.

Solution: Work through the exercise on gerunds in Section A. In this way you will see its grammatical use. In Section B on this page we'll introduce the infinitive, and compare their uses.




SECTION A:


Uses of the gerund ("-ing" form of the verb)

Below are four functions of the gerund followed by an example of their use..... BUT the examples are WRONG. Your job is to copy the sentence in black (highlight, right click and press copy) then paste (put your cursor in the correct place and press paste) so that each description of the grammar has a proper example given below it. 

For example, if you think "This is not drinking water" is an example of the gerund used 1) As a noun, cut it and paste it under number 1).



The gerund can be used:
 

1) As a noun.
He crossed the road without looking.

Please write the correct example from the four sentences in black here:[ANSWER]


2) As an adjective.

My brother avoided speaking to me at the wedding.[ANSWER]



3) After prepositions.
Swimming is good for your health.[ANSWER]


4) After certain verbs.

This is not drinking water.[ANSWER]




After you've moved the examples into the correct box, scroll down for the answers...................

[ADVERT]







Answers:







1) As a noun.
Swimming is good for you.
Other examples:
Smoking is bad for you. So is boozing. (drinking alcohol)



2) As an adjective.

This is not drinking water.

Other examples:

The burning factory collapsed and only smoking ruins were left. (Ruins - what is left of a building after a fire, for example!)




3) After prepositions.
He crossed the road without looking.

Other examples:
After eating, we left the restaurant by climbing through the bathroom window. (Note - this is illegal, and not recommended by the author.)



4) After certain verbs.
My brother avoided speaking to me at the wedding.

Other examples:
I enjoy hitting people, but unfortunately I keep getting beaten up. (Note - again, neither of these things are recommended by the author. Second note - it might be said that the gerund here is the "noun form of the verb", as in number 1.)




[ADVERT]








SECTION B:

Gerund or infinitive?


Some verbs are followed by the gerund as we saw above. Others are followed by the infinitive with or without "to". There are some other structures (which aren't verbs) which are used with gerunds or infinitives too. As with the exercise at the top of the page, move the examples so that they are under the correct description of their grammar.

Suggestion to make it easier: Can you see a phrasal verb in any of the examples? If you can, then you have the answer to question 2). Can you see a simple verb + full infinitive structure? If you can, then you have the answer to number 3). Now you've made a start!






1) Idiomatic expression + gerund. (An idiomatic expression is a special "grouping" of words which is commonly used)
I want to be alone!

Please write the correct example - from the seven sentences in black - here:[ANSWER]





2) Phrasal verb + gerund.
(A phrasal verb is a verb + preposition. As we saw in section A, if a preposition is followed by a verb, that verb is always in the form of the gerund. I can only think of one exception, mentioned in the next section.)

To open that door you'll need a key.[ANSWER]






3) Verb + infinitive.
I look forward to hearing from you. [ANSWER]




4) Verb + object + infinitive.
She made me kiss her![ANSWER]




5) Verb + object + infinitive without "to".
I was happy to hear that you had married your fourth wife.[ANSWER]





6) Infinitive of purpose. (Where the infinitive expresses the reason for doing something. The full form is "in order to...".)
It's a waste of time going to his lectures.[ANSWER]




7) Adjective + infinitive.
She reminded me to feed my crocodile. [ANSWER]


After you've moved the examples into the correct box, scroll down for the answers...................



[ADVERT]





Answers:







1) Idiomatic expression + gerund. (A special "grouping" of words which is commonly used.)

It's a waste of time going to his lectures.




2) Phrasal verb + gerund. (A phrasal verb is a verb + preposition. As we saw in section A, if a preposition is followed by a verb, that verb is always in the form of the gerund. I can only think of one exception, mentioned in the next section.)
I look forward to hearing from you.




3) Verb + infinitive.
I want to be alone!




4) Verb + object + infinitive.
She reminded me to feed my crocodile. 




5) Verb + object + infinitive without "to".
She made me kiss her!





6) Infinitive of purpose. (Where the infinitive expresses the reason for doing something. The full form is "in order to...".) 
To open that door you'll need a key. (or "In order to open that door....")




7) Adjective + infinitive.
I was happy to hear that you had married your fourth wife.






Photo Album:




Bullfighters leaving the arena after an fight. Below, one of them enjoys a cigarette after the afternoon's work. Smoking is bad for your health. But then again, so is bullfighting....






Grammar note 1: Leaving - which tense is this verb? In fact it is a shortened form of "who are leaving".

Grammar note
2: Smoking / bullfighting - these are "gerunds" where the verb is acting as a noun.





Photo
: Mijas, southern Spain.




Do you get it?




Vocabulary note




Sherlock Holmes - a famous English detective who lived in 221B Baker Street, London, in the late 1800s (see photo). Was he real or fictional?

Dr Watson - his (not so clever) assistant.

tent - where you sleep when you go camping

glittering - shining in bright points of light

velvet - a soft material used to make clothes, curtains, etc.

void - emptiness




Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson go camping. They set up their tent, and after eating their supper and telling a few stories about the old days, off they go to get some sleep. In the middle of the night, Holmes wakes up his companion and says, "Watson - look up at those stars and tell me, what do you think it all means?"

"When I look up at the stars, Holmes, I marvel at their multitude, glittering like diamonds against the black velvet void of space and I conclude that even if only a few of those stars have planets around them, then there must be a least some which are similar to the earth. And if there are planets similar to the earth, then I suppose it means there must be also be life similar to our own, and we surely cannot be alone in the universe."

"No Watson," Holmes replies, "it means somebody has stolen our bloody tent!"



Grammar note

1. To go camping: This expression ("go+ gerund form of the verb") is quite common. Other examples: to go fishing, swimming, dancing, clubbing, etc.

2. glittering: Notice how some vocabulary groups show words with similar meanings which have similar forms. All of the ones belowe related to "giving off light".

LESS BRIGHT?

glow
glimmer }
glint }
glisten } INTERMITTENT (NOT CONSTANT)
glitter }
gleam
glare

BRIGHTER?

5 comments:

  1. 盛年不再來,一日難再晨;及時當勉勵,歲月不待人..............................

    ReplyDelete