Monday, 4 January 2010

Specific Grammar Exercises/Linking Devices - Connecting Words


Links and Connectors
.









Problem: Students can be given too many possibilities for "joining" words to use.

Solution: Choose from a limited number of possibilities for joining words that have important functions. These can be used for productive purposes - that is, for actual use in writing, rather than for understanding when reading (recognition purposes).




Introductory exercise 1:


Choose the correct form from the alternatives given below:


1) The demand for tickets was low. And those who bought them often resold them for profit.

The demand for tickets was low, and those who bought them often resold them for profit.

The demand for tickets was low and those who bought them often resold them for profit.

The demand for tickets was low and, those who bought them often resold them for profit.

Please put your suggested answer here:[ANSWER]




2) The building regulations had been ignored, consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

The building regulations had been ignored consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

The building regulations had been ignored. Consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

The building regulations had been ignored. Consequently, the earthquake destroyed much of the city.[ANSWER]




3) This is a useful precedent (example to follow) in law. On the one hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

This is a useful precedent in law. On the other hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

This is a useful precedent in law. On another hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

This is a useful precedent in law. On other hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted. [ANSWER]




4) A thesaurus (dictionary showing other alternatives for a word) is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of is not often used.

A thesaurus is available in most "word" programs. In spite of it is not often used.

A thesaurus is available in most "word" programs. In spite of this it is not often used.

A thesaurus is available in most "word" programs. In spite of this is not often used. [ANSWER]




5) "That is to say" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity [ANSWER]



6) "For instance" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity [ANSWER]



7) "likewise" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity [ANSWER]



8) "Firstly... Secondly... Then.... Finally" are connectors used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity [ANSWER]







Do you need some hints and clues (pieces of helpful information)? Then scroll down...................








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Hints and clues:





The demand for tickets was low. And those who bought them often resold them for profit.
The demand for tickets was low, and those who bought them often resold them for profit.
The demand for tickets was low and those who bought them often resold them for profit.
The demand for tickets was low and, those who bought them often resold them for profit.

1) "And" is a connecting word which usually has a mid-position. In other words, it actually joins two sentences. If the subject of both sentences is the same, no comma is needed. If the second sentence has a new subject, a comma should be put before the "and". [ANSWER]





The building regulations had been ignored, consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.
The building regulations had been ignored consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.
The building regulations had been ignored. Consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.
The building regulations had been ignored. Consequently, the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

2) "Consequently" is a linking word which usually (but not always) has a beginning position. In other words, it connects the "sense" of two sentences, but doesn't actually make them into a single sentence. If you wanted to make them into one sentence, you could use "...and consequently...". When using "consequently" on its own, I was always taught that it should be followed by a comma. [ANSWER]




This is a useful precedent in law. On the one hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.
This is a useful precedent in law. On the other hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.
This is a useful precedent in law. On another hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.
This is a useful precedent in law. On other hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

3) "On... hand" is a linking phrase which usually has a beginning position. Linking phrases usually have a particular form. That is to say, a group of words which cannot be changed. Two of the examples here have the wrong form. Using the wrong form is a common mistake that I have seen many times in students' writing. Of the other two examples, one has the wrong meaning here, and the other is the correct answer.[ANSWER]




A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of is not often used.
A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of it is not often used.
A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of this it is not often used.
A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of this is not often used.

4) "In spite of...." is a linking phrase which usually has a beginning position. "Of" is a preposition. Here the preposition needs to be followed by a noun. This noun cannot be the subject of the verb ("is") which follows it. Another noun is needed to act as the subject for the verb. [ANSWER]



.

5), 6), 7), 8).

a) "Sequencing" means showing the order in which things happen. b) "Illustration" means giving examples or models to follow. c) "Restatement" means saying something again in a different way. d) "Similarity" means showing the relationship between things which have shared characteristics (things in common).


5) "That is to say" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity. [ANSWER]

6) "For instance" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity. [ANSWER]

7) "Likewise" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity. [ANSWER]

8) "Firstly... Secondly... Thirdly... Finally..." are connectors used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity. [ANSWER]




When you've made your choices, check further down the page to see if they're the same as the suggested answers..............








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Answers (The correct choice is in black)



1) The demand for tickets was low. And those who bought them often resold them for profit.

The demand for tickets was low, and those who bought them often resold them for profit. (There is a new subject following "and", so you should really put a comma [,] before it.)

The demand for tickets was low and those who bought them often resold them for profit.

The demand for tickets was low and, those who bought them often resold them for profit.





2) The building regulations had been ignored, consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

The building regulations had been ignored consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

The building regulations had been ignored. Consequently the earthquake destroyed much of the city.

The building regulations had been ignored. Consequently, the earthquake destroyed much of the city. (Though you may also see it without the comma [,] after "Consequently". That is to say, you may read it with or without a pause at this point when reading it aloud. Personally, I prefer the comma every time, because that's how I was taught to do it in school!)




3) This is a useful precedent in law. On the one hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

This is a useful precedent in law. On the other hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

This is a useful precedent in law. On another hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.

This is a useful precedent in law. On other hand, it can sometimes be misinterpreted.





4) A thesaurus
is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of is not often used.

A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of it is not often used.

A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of this it is not often used. (or: "In spite of this, it is....". Again, I prefer the use of the comma.)

A thesaurus is available in most computer "word" programs. In spite of this is not often used.






5) "That is to say" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity





6) "For instance" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity





7) "likewise" is a connector used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity




8) "Firstly... Secondly... Then.... Finally" are connectors used to show: a) sequencing b) illustration c) restatement d) similarity








Summary Notes



Transitional words and phrases for production purposes.



These improve COHERENCE, enabling the reader to FLOW from the first supporting word to the last. They indicate RELATIONSHIPS, either within sentences, from sentence to sentence, or from paragraph to paragraph. Some can come at the BEGINNING OF A SENTENCE (a), and some in MID-SENTENCE (b). Some can be used in EITHER POSITION (c).

(a) I felt very tired, so I went to bed. However, as soon as I got there I started to feel wide awake.
(b)
The birds started to sing, and I couldn’t get back to sleep.
(c) He refused,
even though I asked him nicely.
Even though
I asked him nicely, he refused.
Many people have left the country for better jobs. Even though
this is true,…

<
note> There is a comma after “however”.
<
note> There is a comma before “and”. This is because there is a new subject after the mid sentence link word. If the subject is the same (e.g. “The birds started singing and woke me up.”) it is not needed. However, this is not something you need to lose sleep over! You can be pretty sure English people don’t…..)


Many beginning position expressions can be (quite effectively) used within a sentence if placed "in parenthesis". This means it is treated as "an extra piece of information". That is, it can be taken out, and the sentence still makes sense. (e.g. “The birds, however, didn’t seem to care”)


Below is a summary of linking words you should know for PRODUCTION PURPOSES. There are many more you should know for RECOGNITION PURPOSES.



Addition:


in addition, also, moreover (usually beginning position)

and (usually mid position)


Consequence:


as a result, consequently (usually beginning position)

so, therefore (can be beginning or mid-position)


(opposite meaning)


otherwise (can be beginning or mid-position)


Contrast/comparison/contradiction:


on the other hand, however (beginning)

but, yet (mid)


(opposite meaning)


similarly, likewise (beginning)


Against expectations:


in spite of this (fact), nevertheless (beginning)

even though (beginning or mid)


………………………………………………………………………………


Restatement:

that is to say (beginning)


Illustration:

for example, for instance (beginning)


Sequencing:

Firstly / First (of all), secondly, finally, in conclusion, at the same time (beginning)


……………………………………………………………………………


Other types:

Naturally, in theory, evidently, generally speaking, etc. (Sentence adverbs - see separate exercise for examples)




*******************









Photo Album











Like many people, I like to see myself as a talented photographer! This photograph shows a passion flower as a strong central image. As it is enlarged in this way, it looks like an alien life form.

Language note: "as" and "like"

Like many people.... - illustrating comparison or similarity. Another example: "Why don't you buy an i-pod, like I did?" In the second example here (before a subject and verb), you could use as, but in the first example
(before a noun only) you can't.

I like to see.... - like can, of course, be used as a verb.

.... as a talented photographer. - "in the role of". Another example: "
This photograph shows a passion flower as a strong central image."

As it is enlarged in this way.... - "because". Another example: "I hid from him, as I didn't want him to know I was there."

...., it looks like an alien life form - simple comparison with a verb of the senses. Other examples: "sounds like / feels like / smells like / tastes like"


For other uses of as and like see the exercise under "Specific Grammar Exercises" on the left-hand menu.








Do you get it?






Vocabulary:

psychiatrist - doctor for people with mental health problems.

couch - like a sofa, usually covered in leather, as used for a psychiatrist's patients to lie on

furniture - for example, a couch, armchair, wardrobe or table.




A man goes to the psychiatrist and says, "Doctor, I keep thinking I'm a dog."

"OK," says the psychiatrist, "just come over here and lie on the couch."

"I can't," says the man, "I'm not allowed to get on the furniture."


Or this?


A man goes to the psychiatrist and says, "Doctor, my wife keeps thinking she's a bird."

"Well," says the psychiatrist, "Why don't you get her to come in and speak to me herself?"

"I can't," says the man, "she's flown south for the winter."


Note

In England, many birds fly south in winter to take advantage of the warmer weather. What's more, many people do the same!


Or this?


A man goes to the doctor and says "Doctor, I keep thinking I'm a moth."

"Well," says the doctor, "why don't you go to the psychiatrist?"

"I was on my way to the psychiatrist," says the man, "but then I noticed your light was on."


Note

Moths can often be seen flying around lights and lamps. It is in their nature to use the moon as a guide when they fly by night. When they see the moon in a constant position, for example above them and to the left, they can keep it in that position and know they're flying in a straight line. Man has caused problems for them by providing stronger light sources at night, so they fly in circles around these, mistaking them for the moon and thinking they're flying in a straight line!


Or this?


Psychiatrist in a hospital: "Nurse, maybe you could just say 'we're very busy', rather than 'It's like a madhouse in here'."


Note 1

Notice the punctuation. When one speaker quotes another, it's normal to use double quotation marks (") for the main speaker, and single ones for the quoted words.

Note 2

Idiomatic expression - "like a madhouse" - used when a place is very busy.

3 comments:

  1. grammarman said...

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